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metallurgy - اشکال مختلف گرافیت کروی
دوشنبه 8 فروردین 1390  09:25 ق.ظ
توسط: anarch kh

 اصولا ًبه منظور دستیابی به گرافیت های کروی علاوه بر شارژ مناسب ذوب به روش صحیح و درجه حرارت فوق گداز مناسب اصلاح ترکیب ذوب از نظر میزان عناصر جوانه زنی مناسب ،مقدار عناصر کروی کننده یا منیزیم باقی مانده در مذاب عواملی محسوب می گردد که در کروی کردن گرافیت ها موثر می باشند .اشکال مختلف گرافیت کروی ، با وجود شرایط ذکر شده با اشکال مختلفی در چدن نشکن به وجود می آیند و به دلیل اینکه حداکثر قابلیت فرم پذیری و بیشترین میزان مقاومت در مقابل ضربه با وجود ساختارهایی که حاوی گرافیت های کاملاً کروی می باشد ، حاصل خواهد شد لذا بسته به شرایط تولید ممکن است شکل گرافیت ها از حالت کروی کاملا ً خارج گشته و به صورت های نا منظم در ساختار میکروسکپی چدن های نشکن ظاهر گردد .این اشکال از گرافیت های کروی به ترتیب زیر می باشد ؛

1- گرافیت های نامنظم: که گرافیت هایی هستند غیر کروی ودارای ظاهری نامنظم که تاثیر نامطلوبی بر خواص چدن نشکن دارند .دلیل تشکیل این نوع گرافیت :1- کم بودن جوانه ها و طولانی بودن زمان نگه داری مذاب پس از جوانه زنی  2- کمبود میزان منیزیم باقی مانده 3- به کارگیری مواد شارژ بسیار خالص ، زیرا وجود مقدارکمی عناصر نظیر مس ، آنتیموان ،آرسنیک و سریم باعث بهسازی شکل گرافیت ها می شود.

 2- گرافیت های فشرده: گرافیت هایی هستندکه به صورت ورقه ای کوتاه و ضخیم می باشند و عواملی چون پایین بودن میزان منیزیم باقی مانده ، جوانه زنی نا مناسب ، انجماد سریع در قسمت های نازک به خاطر وجود عناصری مثل تیتانیم که باید مقدار تیتانیم درحد کمتر از 0.04 درصد باشد.

 3- گرافیت های چانگ یا خپل: این گرافیت ها شکل ظریفی از گرافیت بوده که در مقاطع قطعات ریختگی ظاهر می شود و شباهت به گرافیت های نوع E در چدن های خاکستری دارند.

عوامل به وجود آورنده :

 اول : به کارگیری سریم و استفاده از میش متال (50درصد منیزیم ،45درصدلانتانیم و باقی مانده فلزات باقی نادر)

دوم : مواد شارژ با خلوص بالا و کربن معادل بالا

4- گرافیت های ستاره ای : این نوع گرافیت ظاهر غیر کروی، دارای شاخ وبرگ تیز، می باشد که دلایلی مثل ناکافی بودن میزان منیزیم ،وجود مقادیری کمی از عناصری نظیر سرب، بیسموت، آنتیموان در ترکیب چدن نشکن است .


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