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metallurgy - روش های افزودن مواد کروی کننده در چدن نشکن
چهارشنبه 25 اسفند 1389  12:02 ب.ظ
توسط: anarch kh

1-روش پاتیل سرباز : در این روش مواد كروی كننده در كف پاتیل قرار گرفته و مذاب روی این مواد ریخته می شود . در این روش چون مذاب روی منیزیم ریخته می شود و تماس مستقیم مذاب با منیزیم برقرار می شود لذا میزان بازیابی منیزیم در مذاب پایین می باشد كه میزان بازیابی را در این روش می توان بین 20 تا 25 درصد تخمین زد.
نكته : در كلیه روش های تلقیح در پاتیل باید نسبت ارتفاع پاتیل به قطر را رعایت كرد كه این نسبت 3 به 1 می باشد . (
H<3D)

2- روش ساندویچی : در این روش ارتفاع 3 برابر قطر می باشد با این تفاوت كه در قسمت كف پاتیل محفظه ای را تعبیه كرده اند كه مواد كروی كننده در این محفظه قرار می گیرند سپس به وسیله پوششی از ماسه ( فروسلیس- ماسه ورق فولادی ) پوشش داده می شود . سپس مذاب را به داخل پاتیل ریخته و در صورتی كه از پوشش ماسه ای استفاده شود ماسه را شكانده و مواد با مذاب واكنش ایجاد می كند اما در صورتی كه از ورقه ای فولادی استفاده شود ورقه ذوب می شود و مواد منیزیم با مذاب واكنش ایجاد می كند و همچنین اگر با فر وسیلیس انجام شود بازدهی بالا رفته و مزیت هایی در بردارد كه علاوه بر فروسیلیسیم منیزیم عمل جوانه زایی نیز انجام می شود كه میزان بازیابی در این روش را می توان بین 45 تا 40 درصد تخمین زد مزیت دیگری كه این روش به همراه دارد این می باشد كه به علت ریختن مذاب بر روی فروسیلیس منیزیم و همچنین به علت خروج كامل اكسیژن تلفات منیزیم به شدت كاهش پیدا می كند . همچنین به علت دانسیته پایین منیزیم و حضور آن در كف پاتیل پس از ریختن مذاب ، منیزیم به طرف بالا حركت كرده و تلقیح به طور كامل انجام می شود .

3- روش قوطه وری :
در این روش مواد كروی كننده داخل محفظه از جنس گرافیت جاسازی شده و هنگامی كه پاتیل از مذاب پر شده محفظه داخل پاتیل می شو د كه میزان بازیابی منیزیم در این روش 50 تا 55 درصد می باشد . كه معمولا درجه حرارت ریخته گری را در این روش 1560 درجه در نظر گرفته همچینن افت درجه حرارت در این روش 50 درجه سانتیگراد می باشد .

4- روش كنورتر گردان :
در این روش بعد از جاسازی مواد كروی كننده در داخل كنورتر، كنورتر تا حدود 90 درجه چرخانده شده تا مواد كروی كننده با مذاب تماس برقرار كنند كه میزان بازیابی در این روش را می توان تا حدود 60 در صد تخمین زد .

5- روش پودر منیزیم :
در روش پودر منیزیم در داخل محفظه ای همراه با گاز خنثی از كف در داخل پاتیل تزریق می شود

6- درون قالبی (اینمولت ):
بازیابی منیزیم در این روش در حدود 100 درصد می باشد كه مدت زمان بین تلقیح مذاب و تخلیه مذاب در حداقل ممكن می باشد كه هر چه این زمان كمتر باشد كروی سازی بیشتر و یكنواخت تر می شود در این روش مواد كروی كننده در داخل سیستم راهگاهی قرار گرفته و ضمن عبور مذاب از داخل سیستم راهگاهی عمل كروی سازی انجام می شود .

مزایای روش اینمولت :
1- بالا بودن میزان بازیابی منیزیم تا حدود 100 درصد
2- تولید قطعات با سطح مقطع نازك
3- برطرف شدن خطرات زیست محیطی
4- كاهش مراحل تولید
5- افزایش خواص مكانیكی قطعه
6- تسهیل در شرایط اتوماسیون

معایب روش اینمولت :
1- امكان ورود ناخالصی ها به محفظه قالب در صورت طراحی غلط سیستم راهگاهی                                                                

 2- نیاز به طراحی دقیق و درست سیستم راهگاهی كه منجر به افزایش روش تولید می شود .
3- نیاز به استفاده از آلیاژ مناسب


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